Design, Development and Validation of A Readiness Test for Statistics and Probability
1 Jomer O. Ruz; 2 Michael G. Domanais
1Gabao National High School/ DepEd-Sorsogon Province, Philippines
2Buenavista National High School/DepEd-Sorsogon City, Philippines
The modern world is defined by vast amounts of data that can be accessed instantaneously because of scientific and technological developments. People must make sense of these data to make informed decisions. Statistics and Probability is one of the learning areas in the country’s Senior High School (SHS) curriculum that immerses students in problem-solving and informed decision-making activities based on various data tools and methodologies. Both national and international examinations disclose that Filipino pupils did poorly in comparison to other students from other countries. Such an issue existed before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic exacerbated the situation by causing significant learning loss as a result of school closures and the abrupt transition from traditional face-to-face classes to online, modular, and hybrid learning modes. This research designed, developed, and validated a Statistics and Probability readiness test for Senior High School students to use as a tool for teachers to assess students’ prior understanding of pre-requisite concepts and skills. The test has undergone identification of pre-requisite concepts and skills, test development, first pilot testing, and finalization of test items. In identifying the pre-requisite concepts and skills, one of the authors mapped out the contents and skills from the Junior High School Mathematics curriculum that are needed in understanding the contents in the subject. Through a questionnaire, fifteen validators were asked to determine which among these identified pre-requisite skills are needed. Only the prerequisites with at least 80% agreement formed part of the design and test development. The summary of the validators’ responses showed that the pre-requisite contents and skills vary from each SHS Statistics and Probability content. An initial 80-item test was developed and subjected to validity and reliability tests. Through the discriminatory and difficulty indices, this test was reduced to a 45-item test. The final form of the test can be used to measure a student’s proficiency level in the stated pre-requisite skills. It is composed of multiple-choice items distributed along different cognitive process dimensions such as remembering (11.11%), understanding (28.89%), applying (37.78%), and analyzing (22.22%). The result of the test can be used as the basis for remediation activities and or in developing learning materials to address these learning gaps.
Keywords: readiness; assessment; diagnostic test, pre-requisite skills for statistics and probability