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English as A Second Language (ESL) and the Academic Performance of the Students towards English Proficiency Program

Fahima Rahman
Philippine Christian University
Manila, Philippines



This dissertation examines the effectiveness and challenges of using English as a medium of instruction in secondary-level education in Bangladesh, with a focus on Math, Science, and English. The adoption of English as a medium of instruction has become popular in educational institutions such as English-version schools and public and private universities due to global demands for English proficiency. Employing quantitative research methods, this study investigates the gap in language acquisition among Bangla-speaking students who are taught in English despite their non-native background. It also addresses concerns about the potential loss of Bengali identity due to the prevalence of English instruction. The research examines the use of the first language (L1) and the target language (English) within English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. While L1 use can help students understand complex concepts and vocabulary, excessive use can hinder their exposure to the target language. The study analyzes the effectiveness of using English in ESL classrooms and students’ academic performance in English, Math, and Science subjects. Additionally, this research explores the challenges faced by teachers and students when implementing English as a medium of instruction. The historical association of English with colonialism has raised skepticism among Bengali speakers and questions about preserving their mother tongue. This study examines how this linguistic scenario affects classroom activities and learning outcomes. By examining the development of English language skills in Math, Science, and English subjects, this research aims to determine the effectiveness of the current medium of instruction in fostering proficiency in both language and subjects taught. The findings of this study provide insights into language policy and the medium of instruction in the Bangladeshi education system. The research can guide policy-makers and educational authorities in determining the most effective approach to balancing English as a medium of instruction with the preservation of Bengali identity and language. The study highlights the importance of considering language policy, teacher training, and curriculum design to create an environment that maximizes language acquisition and subject understanding while respecting Bangladesh’s cultural and linguistic heritage.

Keywords: English as a medium of Instruction, Language acquisition in Bangladesh, ESL classroom, Academic performance, Language policy, Curriculum design

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