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Perceived Vulnerability of Beach Tourism to Climate Change in Olongapo, Subic, and San Antonio, Zambales

Maria Regina A. Zaguirre1, Maria Cristina R. Williams,2
Graduate School, Centro Escolar University1
9 Mendiola Street, San Miguel, Manila, Philippines
College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Trinity University of Asia
275 E. Rodriguez Sr. Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines1
Graduate School, Centro Escolar University
9 Mendiola Street, San Miguel, Manila, Philippines2



Climate change is not solely a problem of developing countries or tropical countries but is of global concern and its impacts are observed worldwide. Tourism is one of the top industries in many countries, with coastal tourism as the largest form. The Philippines, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia, is home to numerous islands and beaches and therefore capitalizes on the blue economy. However, the Philippines is also the third most vulnerable country globally. This study used the vulnerability theory framework to assess the climate change affecting beach tourism in Zambales, Philippines. Climatic factors considered were increased temperature, strong typhoons, floods, and sea level rise. In the related studies presented in this research, some countries’ and regions’ climatic situations, environmental conditions, and adaptation efforts were conveyed. The reviewed research papers gave numerous insights and best practices done by other countries, which can serve as the benchmark in the development of adaptation measures for beach tourism in the Philippines. In this research, descriptive research in quantitative and qualitative methods are employed. The stakeholders within Zambales were surveyed to assess the destination’s beach tourism vulnerability and condition. Respondents perceived beach tourism to be vulnerable to climate change, and adaptation measures were proposed to address the challenges to beach tourism in Zambales.

Keywords: climate change, beach tourism, Vulnerability Theory, Philippines, mixed method research

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